And now, Words and Their Stories, from VOA Learning English.
Some people get great joy and satisfaction from doing things by themselves. That is why DIY, or do-it-yourself, projects are so popular.
Such projects became even more popular during the coronavirus health crisis. Another activity became popular -- baking.
I am not talking about opening a box of cake mix, stirring in some water and baking it in the oven. I'm sure that it would still taste good. But it would not be completely homemade. You used a cake mix you bought at the store. In other words, you did not make the cake "from scratch."
That is the expression we are going to talk about today – from scratch!
Let's continue with another baking example. I love to make bread from scratch. I measure out the flour, salt, sugar and yeast. I add some water and then knead the mixture into dough, which is the word for uncooked bread. It is so much fun. And, in my opinion, making it from scratch creates the tastiest bread.
To create something from scratch is to make it without any ready-made ingredients or materials.
Let's say you want to build a greenhouse for your plants. You could buy one. But it might cost a lot of money. So, you decide to build it from scratch. You build it from the ground up with the most basic materials.
Starting from scratch can also mean starting something over from the beginning. For example, a group of people want to start a reading program for children. But after hours and hours of planning, they have not decided anything. They thought of many good ideas, but those ideas do not seem to work well together. And the heart of the project has been lost. So, someone suggests, "Hey, why don't we start from scratch and simplify our ideas."
Starting from scratch is often the only way to more forward once a project gets really complex.
You can start many things from scratch – from a reading program to your career. If you start your career from scratch, you start over and do something new. After many years of being a lawyer, my friend started her career over from scratch and became a video game developer.
Or you could continue the same career but in a new way or in a new place.
Here's another example. A friend of mine wanted to re-start his singing career. He was living in Chicago but did not find success there. So, he moved to Pittsburgh and started his singing career over from scratch. It seems to have worked because he is doing really well in that city.
Some word experts say the expression "from scratch" comes from foot races.
The "scratch" used to mean the line scratched in the ground as the starting line for the race. All the runners would begin with their toes on the scratched line.
The term also is used in cricket and boxing. In fact, it may have been used in those sports first.
Experts often do not agree on word origins. But don't let that stop you from using "from scratch." Use the expression the next time you talk about doing something yourself or starting something from the beginning.
And that's all the time we have for this Words and Their Stories. Until next time -- I'm Anna Matteo.
1.from scratch 白手起家，从头做起
Recreating a market from scratch is hard.
2.from the ground up 从头开始
Just like starting any new business from the ground up, success is far from guaranteed.
3.starting line 起跑线
Self-driving is an area where China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.
咱们再来看一个关于“烘焙”的例子。我喜欢从头开始做面包 。我先是量出面粉、盐、糖和酵母的量，然后加一些水，把它们混合起来揉成面团，“dough(面团)”就是“生面包” 。这样做非常有趣 。在我看来，从头开始做面包才能做出最美味的面包 。
我们说“To create something from scratch”，意思就是“在没有任何现成的原料或材料的情况下做成一个东西”。
假设你想为你的植物建一个温室，你可以买一个，但可能会花很多钱。所以，你决定“build it from scratch”，就是说你打算用最基本的材料从头开始建一个温室 。
“start from scratch”也可以指从头开始做某事。例如，一群人想要开始一个儿童阅读计划 。但是经过一小时又一小时的计划，他们还没有做出任何决定 。他们想出了许多好主意，但这些主意似乎不能很好地结合在一起，这个项目的核心已经失去了 。所以，有人建议说：“嘿，为什么我们不从头开始，简化一下我们的想法呢？”
当项目变得非常复杂时，“start from scratch(从头开始)”通常是前进的唯一途径。
很多事情你都可以从头开始——从阅读计划到职业生涯。如果你“start your career from scratch(从头开始你的职业生涯)”，那么你就要做一些新的事情 。在做了多年律师之后，我的朋友重新开始了她的职业生涯，成为了一名电子游戏开发者 。
下面是另一个例子。我的一个朋友想重新开始他的歌唱生涯 。他住在芝加哥，但在那里没有取得成功 。所以，他搬到了匹兹堡，从头开始他的歌唱生涯 。这似乎起作用了，因为他在那个城市做得很好 。
专家们常常对词源意见不一，但不要因此而停止使用“from scratch”。下次当你谈论自己做某事或从头开始做某事时可以使用这个表达 。